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Susceptibility assay showed that the combination of licofelone and tufts has strong synergistic antifungal effects against resistant C. These effects were also illustrated by the FICI in tufts the FICI for the resistant C. Three-dimensional plots of fluconazole combined tufts licofelone against Candida albicans were created by using MATLAB program. The concentrations of fluconazole and licofelone are depicted on the x axis and y axis, respectively, and the E-values tufts for each combination is depicted on the z axis smoking feet construct a three-dimensional (3D) graphic.

Peaks above tufts 0 plane represent synergistic combinations. The color-coding bar on the right indicates that tufts closer to the top of tufts bar, the more effective the drug combination. The combined antifungal effects of fluconazole combined with licofelone against Candida albicans. The susceptibilities of 4 C. For the resistant Tufts. The following experiments were performed in resistant C. The SMICs of tufts antifungal drugs are shown in Table 2.

Antifungal i l d of fluconazole combined with licofelone against biofilm of resistant Candida albicans. The selection of drug concentration is not shown in this research. The results showed that after 2 days infection, all of the drug-treated groups showed tufts melanization (Figure 2). Specifically, the two-drug combination group significantly reduced the melanization compared to the fluconazole group and was the highest survival rate (P P FIGURE 2.

Survival curve tufts different treatment on G. These four curves were put in the same tufts system to compare the survival rates. Values johnson year the means standard deviations from three replicates.

After 3 days of infection, the fungal burden was determined by tufts yeast cells from the larvae infected with resistant C. The number of CFUs in larvae were increased over the time of infection (Figure 3). Tufts two-drug combination significantly decreased CFU number by almost 4-fold compared to the control group (P FIGURE tufts. Effect of drug combination on larval burdens of resistant C.

Histopathologic staining of larvae infected with resistant C. The differences in shape and cytoplasmic staining were detected. Both yeast and filament forms of C. In addition, licofelone alone group (Figures 4E,F) decreased more yeast tufts than fluconazole alone group (Figures 4C,D). The growth control (treatment with the PBS alone) group (Figures 4A,B) has higher levels of infection than any other group. The mean size of the infected areas was smaller in the tufts group compared to the fluconazole group.

Histopathology study of infected G. The extracellular phospholipase activity of resistant C. Extracellular phospholipase activity tufts C. To investigate the effects tufts licofelone and fluconazole on resistant C. The results showed that both licofelone combined with fluconazole group and fluconazole alone group can tufts the expression levels of SAP1, SAP2, SAP3, and SAP4 compared to the control group (Figure 5).

The level of decreased expression in the combination group was more remarkable than the fluconazole alone group (P SAP1 in the fluconazole alone group was significantly decreased compared to the control group tufts SAP1 to SAP4 in licofelone alone group shows no obvious difference tufts to the control group. Relative gene expression levels of SAP1, SAP2, Tufts, and SAP4 in resistant C.

Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed to cDNA for further real-time quantitative PCR to detect gene expression levels. To tufts investigate the effects of licofelone and fluconazole on resistant C.

The results showed tufts the combination of licofelone with fluconazole group down-regulated the RAS1, CYR1, TPK2, BCR1, HWP1, ALS1 and Tufts expression in comparison with control group (Figure 6). The combination group significantly decreased the expression level of RAS1 (3-fold), CYR1 (10-fold), TPK2 (3-fold), Tufts (4-fold), HWP1 (3-fold), ALS1 (2-fold) and ALS3 (8-fold) compared to the fluconazole group tufts RAS1, CYR1, TPK2, ALS1, ALS3, and HWP1 expression on licofelone alone were higher than fluconazole alone group.

In addition, both groups decreased EFG1 expression relative to the growth control group.



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