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However, in the study by de Gonzalo-Calvo et al. Comparing intense and moderate exercise, the increase in CK was greater in moderate exercise, but only 2 studies evaluate this intensity when compared to 4 studies evaluating the st marks hospital salt lake city exercise.

Increases in CRP were observed in one study of moderate tat (Draganidis et al. In the Draganidis et al. The increase in CRP on Fatouros et al. Globally, all the studies had increases of this inflammatory marker, with greater values at 24 h. Comparing both exercise intensities, the increase was greater after intense exercise, but only one study referred st marks hospital salt lake city moderate-intensity exercise.

This systematic review evaluated the changes of inflammatory markers after moderate and intense exercise bouts. The findings of the current review suggest that there is an acute inflammation profile after exercise, with the increase of most inflammatory markers, especially in high-intensity exercise. In samples taken immediately after long and intense exercises we could not rule out the effects of dehydration on the plasma volume, and hence the quantification of the inflammatory markers measured.

Results suggested that there are substantial discrepancies in the extent of pro-inflammatory changes turkey tail the immune system. By examining the impact of different intensity exercise on anti-inflammatory cytokines secretion, some of the studies showed an increase while others report no change (Brenner et al.

This might be a consequence of cytokines appearing only transiently in the blood and thereby evading detection. Moreover, cytokines are secreted by many cells and tissues, with muscle considered st marks hospital salt lake city be a major contributor during exercise, battle such, circulating levels might not reflect levels in source tissues. IL-6 concentration increases more than other cytokines during exercise which might indicate muscle damage (Allen et al.

IL-6 plasma concentrations are reportedly papersonline ifac by factors other than intensity, such as type and time of exercise (Gleeson et al. Following acute exercise, elevated levels of IL-6 promote an increase in IL-10 and IL-1RA, two anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Most studies showed an increase in IL-10 after intense exercise which is consistent with previous reports (Moldoveanu et al. Regardless, levels of IL-10 tend to peak download recovery time from exercise, with the magnitude of the increase being related to the active muscle mass and exercise intensity.

Overall, the duration of the exercise was the most important factor determining the magnitude of the exercise-induced increase of plasma IL-10, as recently reviewed by Santos et st marks hospital salt lake city. This increase in IL-10 could be related to the prevention of potential deleterious chronic low-grade inflammation and tissue damage.

In contrast to our main findings, Starkie et al. However, no change was found after a single 45 min moderate bout or one 5 min intense bout (Moldoveanu et al.

Previous reports suggested that IL-1 release depends on the type, intensity and duration of exercise (Moldoveanu et al. In this systematic review, it was observed that IL-8 increased after both st marks hospital salt lake city intensities, which is consistent with previous reviews that report increased IL-8 systemic levels associated with damaging exercise regimes (Moldoveanu et al.

The same occurs in this systematic review, with IL-8 systemic levels increasing after prolonged and acute intense exercises. In general, cytokines increase more with intense than with moderate exercise, but these increases are not consistent, being influenced by the duration and type of exercise.

WBC number was the only inflammatory marker studied that showed a clear increase after intense exercise in all the included studies, without alteration in moderate exercise studies.

The results also suggest a chronology in the mobilization of the different leukocyte populations to the blood, with lymphocytosis occurring at the end of the intense exercise bouts and decreasing shortly after (30 min) (Wadley et al. As a part of the innate immune system, NK cells can recognize and eliminate neoplastic and virus-infected cells without prior contact (Bigley and Simpson, 2015).

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