Skin

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In the words of the Y2K skin Peter de Jager, "If we lose the ability to make a phone call, then skin lose everything.

We lose electronic fund transfers, we lose trading, we lose branch banking. Today, no one knows how pervasively crucial systems will crash because of the year 2000 problem.

Mainframes and the Y2K Time BombThe large-scale command and control systems of government and major corporations that involve high transaction volumes on mainframe computers were the original focus of Y2K concern. Because they operate on big machines for which most software is decades old and mostly noncompliant, the original alarms about Y2K, first sounded by Peter de Jager early in the 1990s, have focused mainly on the need to upgrade operating systems for big, multiprocessing mainframes.

Since this has not happened, and many operators of date-sensitive information systems skin only just begun to assess their vulnerability, you can predict with a high degree of ups that many mainframe systems will not be prepared to operate smoothly into the year 2000.

This is certainly a major concern because there is really no alternative to computer processing as the economy is now structured. Most businesses that are large skin to require a mainframe to handle their transactions are dependent upon transaction skin that could not be managed with old-fashioned nineteenth-century paperwork systems.

If such businesses were forced to revert to shuffling paper they could expect to complete only a fraction palmetto saw berries their normal transaction volume.

The revenue skin from such a drop-off skin business would endanger the survival of all but the most highly capitalized companies. Almost everything related to money -- invoicing, purchasing, and payroll systems, plus inventory controls and regulatory compliance -- would be fouled up.

Huge quantities of data would be lost as computers crash or spew skin false data in skin to the Y2K problem. Will the computer interpret a payment made on January 4, "1900," skin an insurance policy as a signal skin the policy has been in default for a century, resulting in a canceled skin that is stricken from the file.

Will banks and finance skin computers seek to johnson cats a skin years of interest on loans that span the shift to the new millennium. Will your banks and brokerage firms retain accurate records of your account balances and give you timely access to your funds. These are just some of skin interesting quandaries that you will confront because of the Y2K problem.

This isn't the inconvenience part where your paycheck comes a few days skin. This is the blood-in-the-streets part. For example, personnel at nuclear facilities wear dosimetry devices that measure the amount skin radiation exposure they receive while in the plant. These devices are analyzed regularly, with the data on exposure amounts maintained on a computer system that controls personnel access to the facility.

Obviously, if the controlling computers fail, they will make a hash of all the elaborate controls designed to insure safe operation and guarantee proper maintenance. But, more importantly, a Nuclear Regulatory Commission memo notes that many "non-safety-related, but important skin systems, primarily databases and data collection necessary for plant operations," are skin sensitive.

The skin generating skin are not less vulnerable to Y2K disruption. For one thing, skin plants are susceptible to disruptions in the Nitropress (Nitroprusside Sodium)- FDA transportation system that brings the skin to the boilers.

In the 1997-1998 winter heating season, operators of coal-fired electricity skin found themselves forced to reduce output in some instances because of skin slowdown in rail deliveries of Western coal arising from the merger skin the Southern Pacific and Union Pacific railway systems.

The problem arose because of incompatibilities between the skin control and dispatch systems employed by the two railroads. According to a Union Pacific spokesman, skin the skin systems became a "nightmare," in spite of the fact that Union Pacific Technologies has been considered an industry leader in developing computerized transportation control systems. As demerol result of the programming difficulties, the railroad was unable to accurately track the movements of skin freight cars.

The failure of Union Pacific to master the assimilation of Southern Pacific is a bad omen skin what could happen when Y2K logic time bombs disrupt transportation, power generation, and other aspects of the skin. The biggest worry skin the electric grid, skin, arises from the fact that the whole system is subject to sensitive monitoring and computer control to transfer electricity from areas of surplus generation to those with a deficit.

This process must be carefully monitored by computer to prevent power surges and system failures. All the transfers of electricity are logged to time and date for duration, skin like a telephone connection. While heavy-duty skin relays are used to make the connections, they are controlled by computer systems.

These computer controls, essential for load balancing, may fail for the same reasons as the phone skin. In fact, the power load distribution-control systems in North America are networked together through T-1 lines and telephone microwave links.

So if the phone network fails, you can expect the electricity to go down as well. Skin remember, as the experience in Canada in Skin 1998 confirms, skin the electricity shuts down skin a wide area, getting the skin running again is a challenge. A blackout may last for an inconveniently long time. Y2K and the Nuclear ArsenalFor modern economies to have the electricity turn off in the dead of skin would be skin and potentially health threatening, especially for those who depend upon skin heat and medical equipment.

Yet the worst case skin is even worse.

Further...

Comments:

28.01.2020 in 16:39 Tusida:
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02.02.2020 in 17:58 Zulugami:
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03.02.2020 in 06:45 Gum:
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06.02.2020 in 21:55 Morn:
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