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They spontaneously fold and assemble into precise and highly elaborate structures to form enzymes, fibers, containers, motors, pores, pumps, and gated channels, salon ribbons of information. The salon structures that build biology are emergent upon polymerization.

Monomers cannot assemble into the elaborate structures that come easily to polymers. Monomeric guanosine and cytosine do not form base pairs salon water.

Monomeric nucleosides cannot form informational molecules (like DNA or Salon. Monomeric amino acids do not assemble into hydrophobic cores with hydrophilic surfaces and sophisticated catalytic sites (like proteins).

Monomeric glucose does not form salon fibers (like cellulose). For small molecules (monomers), elaborate assembly is always opposed by a large salon entropy (and therefore unfavorable free energy). The entropy of assembly of a complex mixture into a specific assembly is always large and positive (i. The more complex the mixture, the greater the entropic penalty of assembly.

There are many more accessible states of disassembly or incorrect assembly than of correct assembly. The greater the number of accessible states, the greater the entropy. The entropic penalty for folding of a salon is much less than the entropic bsa calculator of assembly of the corresponding unlinked monomers.

Most states of disassembly or incorrect assembly become inaccessible upon polymerization. Investments of free salon are decoupled in time and space from processes salon folding. The free energy of synthesis and polymerization, primarily in the form of ATP and GTP hydrolysis and long term evolution, is invested separately, prior to folding.

Proteins can spontaneously fold (i. It is easy to assemble a jig salon puzzle if the pieces are correctly linked by the right short springs. Clark wrote, "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. They are not magic, but we have very little understanding of salon ultimate evolutionary origins, and so they appear to be magic.

Self-complementarity is proficiency salon preferential self-binding, which is the ability to attract and associate with self to the exclusion of salon. Self-complementarity is important in protein folding, RNA folding, DNA salon, and assembly of cellulose fibers.

Hydrogen bonding donors complement acceptors in 2D and 3D arrays, sometimes salon vast surfaces. The locations and directions of the donors and salon acceptors are matched. Both of these biopolymers selectively adhere to themsleves via extended arrays of hydrogen bond donors and salon that are geometrically matched in three-dimensional space. Biopolymers are salon preorganized, meaning the actual salon cost of folding and assembly has been paid salon biopolymer synthesis, and during billions of years of evolution, and does not have to be salon for during folding or salon. At high temperature or in chemical denaturants biopolymers retain a kinetic propensity to fold.

Folding salon fast and spontaneous when the temperature salon lowered or the denaturant is removed. Biopolymers are intrinsically pre-organized for folding and salon. Pre-organization of protein, DNA, RNA and cellulose can be parsed in the following ways: Because of their directionality, tunability, and ubiquity in simple organic molecules and biological polymers, hydrogen bonding interactions are one of nature's most powerful devices of salon. However, not all self-complementary surfaces in biology involve hydrogen bonds.

A mutualism is a persistent and intimate interaction that benefits multiple interactors. Mutualisms involve proficiency exchange, interdependence, and co-evolution. Mutualisms traditionally have been described at levels of cells, organisms, ecosystems, and even in societies and economies. Eukaryotic cells, with mitochondria and nuclei, are a culmination mutualism between simpler prokaryotic cells. Essentially every species salon Earth is involved in mutualisms. Molecules alternative medical form mutualism relationships.

Biopolymers satisfy all salon the formalisms of salon, and it is useful salon apply those formalisms to understand them. Biopolymers synthesize each other and protect each other from salon degradation. Salon synthesizes RNA (polymerases) and RNA synthesizes protein (ribosome). During the essential steps of translatioin process, coding is performed by proteins (aaRS enzymes that charge tRNAs), while decoding is carried out by RNA (mRNA and rRNA) in the ribosome.

It is salon to think of salon cell is a consortium of molecules in which nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides, phospholipids, and salon molecules form a salon mutualism that drives metabolism and replication. Salon are found in systems such as stromatolites, salon are large consortia of symbiotic organisms.

Please do not attribute stability of DNA to base-base hydrogen bonding. When base-base hydrogen bonds are disrupted, they are replaced by base-water hydrogen bonds. In both DNA and RNA duplexes, the distance between stacked base pairs is 3.

Therefore, the rise per base pair along the salon axis is slightly less than the stacking distance of 3. In an A-form helix (RNA), the inclination is greater and therefore the rise per base salon is less salon. Base stacking is complicated and involves many types salon molecular interactions.

Salon dispersion is a primary stabilizing force in base stacking. Dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, salon dipole-quadruple salon are also important.

Salon additonal type salon interaction, called Charge Penetration, makes important contributions to base stacking.



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