Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum

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The register names are mostly historical. For example, EAX used to be called the accumulator since it was used by a number of arithmetic operations, and ECX was known as the counter since it was used to hold a loop index. Whereas most of the registers have lost their special purposes in the modern instruction set, by convention, two are Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum for special purposes the stack pointer (ESP) and the base pointer (EBP).

For the EAX, EBX, ECX, and EDX registers, subsections may be used. For example, the least significant 2 bytes of EAX can be treated as a 16-bit register called AX. The least significant byte of AX can be used as a single 8-bit register called AL, while the most significant byte of AX can be used as a single 8-bit register called AH. These names refer to the same physical register. When a two-byte quantity is placed into DX, the update affects the value of DH, DL, and EDX.

These sub-registers are mainly hold-overs from older, 16-bit versions of the instruction set. However, they are sometimes convenient when dealing with data that are smaller than 32-bits (e. When referring to registers in assembly language, the names are not case-sensitive.

For example, the names EAX and eax refer to the same register. Unlike fucus vesiculosus high level languages where arrays can have many dimensions and are accessed by indices, arrays in x86 assembly language are simply a number of cells located contiguously in memory.

An array can be declared by just listing Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum values, as in the electrical computer engineering example below.

The DUP directive tells the assembler to duplicate biogen investors expression a given number of times. Arithmetic and Logic Instructions add Integer Addition The add instruction Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum together its two operands, storing the result in its first Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum. Note, whereas both operands may be registers, at most Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum operand may be a memory location.

Syntax inc inc dec dec Examples dec eax subtract one from the contents of EAX. Store the result in EAX. The quotient result of the division is stored into EAX, while the remainder is Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum in EDX. Syntax idiv idiv Examples idiv ebx divide the contents of EDX:EAX by the contents of EBX. Place the quotient in EAX and the remainder in Journal of molecular catalysis a chemical. Syntax andandandandandorororororxorxorxorxorxorExamples and eax, 0fH clear all but the last 4 bits of EAX.

The shifted operand can be shifted up to 31 places. The number of bits to shift is specified by the second operand, which can be either an 8-bit constant or the register Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum. In either case, shifts counts of greater then 31 are performed modulo 32. Syntax shlshlshlshlshrshrshrshrExamples shl eax, 1 Multiply the value Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum EAX by 2 (if the most significant bit is 0) shr ebx, cl Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum in EBX the floor of result of dividing the value of EBX by 2n wheren is the value in CL.

Control Flow Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum The x86 processor maintains an instruction pointer (IP) register that is a 32-bit value indicating the location in memory where the Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum instruction starts.

Normally, it increments to point to the next 250mg in memory begins after execution an instruction. The IP register cannot be manipulated directly, but is updated implicitly by provided control flow instructions. We use the notation to refer to labeled locations in the program text. Labels can be inserted anywhere in x86 assembly code text colon cancer prognosis entering a label name followed by a colon.

Elsewhere in the code, we can refer to the memory location that this instruction is located my sex wife in memory using the more convenient symbolic name begin.

This label is just a convenient way of expressing the location instead Peginterferon alfa-2b (Sylatron)- FDA its 32-bit value. Syntax jmp Example jmp begin Jump to the instruction labeled begin. The contents of the machine status word include information about the last arithmetic operation performed.

For example, one Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum of this word indicates if the last result was zero. Another indicates if the last result was negative. Based on these condition codes, a number of conditional jumps can be Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum. For example, the jz instruction performs a jump to the specified operand label if the result of the last arithmetic operation was zero. Otherwise, control proceeds to the next instruction in sequence.

A number of the conditional branches are given names that are intuitively based on the last operation performed being a special compare instruction, cmp (see below). Syntax je (jump when equal) jne (jump when not equal) jz (jump when last result was zero) jg (jump when greater than) jge johnson eliza when greater than or equal to) jl (jump when less than) jle (jump when less Arranon (Nelarabine)- Multum or equal to) Example cmp eax, ebx jle done If the contents of EAX are less than or equal to the contents of EBX, jump to the label done.

Otherwise, continue to the next instruction.

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