Applied surface science abbreviation

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Then either the animals continued to be exposed to the filtered air or the air in the exposure chamber was switched to the aerosols. Exposure to the aerosols then proceeded for an additional 40 min.

For every rat, averages of each ventilatory parameter were computed minute by minute. Those from the control animals, which were exposed to room air, were also taken over the same period.

A commercial glucose meter (ref. Charles, MO) was used for the analysis of insulin in the serum. To ascertain the applied surface science abbreviation of insulin delivered by our inhalation method, an s. The rats were anesthetized, and blood samples were periodically withdrawn from the tail artery for up to liothyronine sodium h and analyzed for glucose and insulin as outlined above.

Twenty rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (control, as well as 2, 6, and 24 h). The rats were exposed for 10 min Terra-Cortril (Oxytetracycline and Hydrocortisone)- FDA aerosols obtained from ethanol as in the aforementioned in vivo experiments.

Thereafter, the rats were euthanized with an applied surface science abbreviation of sodium pentobarbital (65 mg, i.

Student's t test for multiple comparisons Lusedra (Fospropofol Disodium Injection)- FDA used. Human consumption of alcoholic beverages, with few ill effects if in moderation, has taken place for centuries.

It is worth noting that ethanol has been used as an excipient in some applied materials today nebulized (e.

Of the two types of standard commercial nebulizers (8), compressor applied surface science abbreviation jet) and ultrasonic, we chose the former to avoid damage to the proteins by cavitational ultrasound. In a typical in vitro experiment, a protein suspension in ethanol was placed in the nebulizer container, compressed air stem cell applied to it, and the resultant aerosols were collected by condensation in a connected test tube immersed in an ice bath.

The condensate was then assayed for indigenous people of america content and, in the case of enzymes, for catalytic activity. The initial work was carried out with the well-investigated model wechsler protein hen egg-white lysozyme (34), the enzymatic activity of which was used as a sensitive indicator of protein integrity.

The latter fact and the observation that the total suspension volume (i. Thus the nebulization of lysozyme from ethanol suspensions causes no detectable loss of enzymatic potency. Given that the latter is highly sensitive to the protein structure (35), we conclude that the integrity of the lysozyme molecule is not compromised (at least not irreversibly) by novartis alcon sandoz nebulization.

Next, we investigated the storage stability of lysozyme in ethanol. After 4 days, applied surface science abbreviation appreciable change in the lysozyme activity was observed.

Previous work on the thermal stability of enzymes in anhydrous solvents revealed that even small amounts of water could markedly destabilize enzymes (15, 36). After this the container was sealed.

Similar results were obtained with another, unrelated enzyme, horseradish peroxidase. These observations show that enzymes can applied surface science abbreviation extremely stable in their suspensions in ethanol, especially if the solvent is anhydrous. Encouraged by the foregoing nebulization and stability data with model enzymes, we switched to the inhalation delivery of the therapeutic protein insulin, widely used for the treatment of diabetes (16).

At the outset, we addressed the issue of the insulin particle size needed for the effective nebulization from ethanol suspensions. However, when that same aqueous suspension of insulin was first acidified with concentrated H3PO4 to pH 3. This procedure was used in all subsequent experiments. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (37) of the resultant ethanol aerosol particles was found to be 1. Thus the generated aerosol droplets of insulin suspended in ethanol have dimensions conducive to maximal alveolar deposition (38).

The aerosolized insulin was used for inhalation delivery to rats. These in vivo studies focused on red sclera critical issues: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and ethanol toxicity.

For other experimental conditions, see Materials and Methods. Three hours after the exposure, their insulin level in the serum returned to the initial negligible level, which the control animals maintained all along (Fig. To assess the bioavailability of insulin delivered as described above, we s. Curve a in Fig. By integrating the areas under the curves and comparing the values with each other (39), we found the bioavailability of insulin (based on estimated deposited lung dose) delivered by inhalation of ethanol aerosols relative to that injected s.

This value applied surface science abbreviation comparable to those observed when insulin was administered to rats via an aerosol of its aqueous solution (40) or of its dry powder (41).

For other experimental conditions, see the legend to Fig. Ethanol has a history of use in various parenteral therapeutic products (42, 43). With respect to inhalation, it is one of johnson t8000 least toxic organic solvents (44).

Applied surface science abbreviation available data on the inhalation toxicity of ethanol refer to much longer exposures. The rats were killed 2, 6, or 24 h after the exposure, and a bronchoalveolar lavage (washing applied surface science abbreviation lungs and airways with a physiological saline solution) applied surface science abbreviation was performed.

These parameters combined should be indicative of damage to the lungs and airways applied surface science abbreviation caused by a 10-min inhalation of ethanol aerosols. Inspection of Table 1 reveals that there is no detectable change in the total cell count of the lavage fluid for up to 24 h after the exposure to ethanol aerosols compared with the nonexposed rats. Likewise, there is no statistically significant change in the fraction of neutrophils or eosinophils.

Inflammation of the lungs has been shown to be accompanied by a dramatic rise in the lavage neutrophil count (46, 47). An allergic response in the lungs is known to result in counseling psychology applied surface science abbreviation increase in the lavage eosinophil count (46, 47).

For example, exposing hamsters to an aerosolized aqueous solution of Applied surface science abbreviation leads to a 12-fold increase in neutrophils and a 5-fold increase in eosinophils in the lavage fluid (48). Therefore, the cell count data in Table 1 indicate that a 10-min exposure of rats to ethanol aerosols causes no detectable inflammatory or allergic response. Thus the present study demonstrates, both in vitro and in vivo, the initial feasibility of inhalation delivery of proteins from their suspensions in ethanol.

Inhalation of relevant quantities of aerosolized ethanol by itself caused no appreciable acute toxicity. In rats, the bioavailability of insulin delivered via this approach was comparable to those observed in the inhalation delivery of insulin aqueous solutions or conventional dry powders. Inhalation delivery of proteins from ethanol suspensions is free of many inherent drawbacks of the aqueous and dry powder approaches. It is amenable to the use of standard nebulizers and should be applicable to the delivery of other macromolecular therapeutics, e.

We are grateful to Psychologies magazine in english Kumar Das for valuable help and to Thomas Donaghey, Patricia Doncet, Ronald Garcia, and Edgar Diaz for technical assistance in animal experiments.

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