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DermNet provides Google Translate, a free machine translation service. Updated by Vanessa Ngan, Staff writer, 1 February 2014. Fleas are insects from the order Siphonaptera. They are parasites that survive from sucking the blood from their hosts. Fleas that primarily feed on humans include the human flea, Pulex irritans, and dog and alert donate Stavzor (Valproic Acid)- FDA, Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides felis.

The Stavzor (Valproic Acid)- FDA flea survives exclusively through blood meals from its host. During Stavzor (Valproic Acid)- FDA, the flea has a specialized mouthpiece that punctures intact skin and syphons blood. It simultaneously secretes saliva, which can be very antigenic (allergy-inducing). The saliva helps to prevent the host's blood Stavzor (Valproic Acid)- FDA clotting, Stavzor (Valproic Acid)- FDA facilitates their feeding.

A flea has three pairs of legs, with long hind legs ideal for jumping. They can jump up to 18 cm in height. Adult fleas of domestic animals tend to live on the animal for easy access to blood meals.

The female fleas lay white, round eggs that tend to fall off the animal onto bedding, floor and soil. The emerging larva feeds on organic material in a moist environment including the faeces of adult fleas. After sufficient growth and development, the larva spins itself a cocoon and pupates. Cocoons are found in soil, carpets, under furniture and on animal bedding. With the right stimuli, such as warm temperatures, high humidity or vibrations from movement, the pupa emerges from its cocoon as an adult flea.

Survival depends on adequate temperature and high humidity. Adult fleas move toward a light source, then jump when the light is shadowed Stavzor (Valproic Acid)- FDA. The flea starts feeding immediately and is estimated to consume 13.

They soon die if removed from the host, and rarely colonise another animal. Fleas can be hard to see. They are dark and wingless. They are more obvious if they are jumping Nembutal (Pentobarbital)- FDA a person wearing white socks. Species that primarily infest cats Stavzor (Valproic Acid)- FDA dogs may bite humans if they have been starved since stress balls last blood meal.

Flea eggs can survive for several weeks and pets are readily reinfestated, so maintain these strategies long term to prevent perpetuating infestation. Difficult indications of endoscopy may require the help of a professional exterminator. The bite may also be painful. Scratching can lead to secondary infection.

Some individuals mount an excessive immune response (allergy) to flea saliva resulting in a Stavzor (Valproic Acid)- FDA pronounced or persistent bite reaction called papular urticaria, a form of prurigo. The site of the bite may become red and swell, sometimes with a central blister, which may break becoming oozy and crusted. Old bite marks may reactivate.

Anaphylaxis has not been reported. A flea can act as a transporter (called a vector) for other diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. For example:The tropical species of sand fleas (Tunga penetrans) burrow into human skin and cause an inflammatory reaction known as tungiasis. Pain, redness, oozing, crusting and pustules at the site of a bite indicates secondary bacterial infection, often requiring topical or oral antibiotics.

To minimise the use of potentially toxic insecticides:Ask your veterinarian's advice about which insecticides Stavzor (Valproic Acid)- FDA be used for your pet. Prescription chemicals will be different in dogs and cats. Some methods of eliminating fleas from cats and dogs are listed below. Many of these agents are only available from a registered veterinarian. The following traditional flea-control agents are toxic to humans and pets and are best avoided (with the exception of permethrin, which may be used in dogs).

In addition, insect resistance is increasing to these chemicals. See smartphone apps to check your skin. If you have any concerns with your skin or its treatment, see a dermatologist for advice.

DermNet NZ does not provide an online consultation service. Biology, treatment, and control of flea and tick infestations. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. Dermatology Made Easy Book With your help, we can update and expand the website. One flea can bite up to 400 times per day in a lifespan that can last about 100 days.

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